There are two mechanisms standardized (STANAG and STANAG ) which are discussed here. These provide similar characteristics to the IP user, and. 25 Jul Unid UTC USB, STANAG Fast Link setup (FLSU) bursts followed by Low rate Data Link (LDL) forward transmissions. 5 Jan Quoting from STANAG “Transmitting N Async_FLSU_Request PDUs guarantees that all other scanning stations will scan the calling.

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For a chatty application such as SMTP, the cost of turnarounds is prohibitive.

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SMTP gives a good insight into a TCP based application, which is a common choice for Internet applications it is not used for real time applications such as voice and video, but is used for most other applications.

The ACK signals use the most robust etanag along with link being more robust than the traffic waveforms, which means it may be impossible to pass the payload after a link if channel conditions are poor enough.

This choice gives a flavor of the issues that will be examined in the rest of this paper. Unit data may be unacknowledged best effort or acknowledged reliable. This sort of application is only going to be useful for low volumes of data. TCP is a windowing protocol, and in practice the only one that matters. All burst waveforms use the basic 8-PSK 8-Phase Phase-Shift Keying 3 bits per symbol modulation at baud Baud unit symbol Bd is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second.

The burst waveforms employ code combining for data transmissions: Thus, with no more overhead than is already required for ARQ Automatic Repeat reQuest Automatic Repeat Query operation, data rate can adapt as required for each individual packet in a message. This paper looks to highlight key protocol choices, rather than give detailed descriptions. In an HF environment, this is highly undesirable application behavior, as it requires lots of turnarounds in order to support it.


If it does not get an ACK back within a reasonable time, stanxg resends the data packet. It also fixes options to maximize interoperability without 45538 need for service negotiation. This exchange is shown at the IP level. Another example of where IP is not right is deep space communications, where the long round trip times require a different approach.

After each new reception, the additional received signal is combined in the FEC Forward Error Correction stnaag with the earlier reception s until an error-free result is obtained. In situations of low packet loss, a UDP based approach is in practice reasonably stanav. For components about the modem level, speed is determined. The sending implementation provides data e.

Improvements over 2G ALE: In a network operating in synchronous mode, these addresses are partitioned into a 5-bit dwell group number and a 6-bit member number within that dwell group.

These last two points have potential for significant inefficiency, and are discussed in more detail in the context of relevant protocols.

This will give the duration of total 1.

Why IP over HF Radio should be Avoided

One of the functions of the sub network layer is translation of upper-layer addresses e. There are two general issues relating to performance that are now described. The key performance issue with a rate based protocol and HF is getting the rate correct.


Used for Robust Link Set Up. There are two options for unit data, both of which are valid for IP:.

Automatic Link Establishment (3G ALE ARCS) – Signal Identification Wiki

This is sufficiently small to fit into the channel dwell time of 1. All of this leads to a turnaround time of at least a few seconds and sometimes as much as seconds.

The following sequence is directly comparable to the HMTP sequence shown earlier:. The preamble used in the BW5 is unique for this waveform. HF Links are also used for voice communication. STANAG provides a reliable point to point data service that will work with very poor radio conditions. Unreliable communication is only sensible for a specialized class of applications, as reliability is generally desirable.

The above stanga could be optimized by sharing IP packets. This slow speed is usually perceived as the primary difficulty with using HF. The application can send data as fast as it wishes using the unit data service.

In order to analyze performance, it is important to understand in a very simplistic way how TCP works in conjunction with IP. These are now considered.

Why IP over HF Radio should be Avoided

For VHF, full duplex transmission can also be used, which removes the impact completely. The HF bandwidth available may change according to conditions.

IP could be mapped onto HF Radio in a number of ways. Personal tools Create account Log in.